## Overview

**Runtime Minimization.** One of the most important properties of a program is
the time it takes to execute. One goal as a programmer is to minimize the time
(in seconds) that a program takes to complete.

**Runtime Measurement.** Some natural techniques:

- Measure the number of seconds that a program takes to complete using a stopwatch (either physical or in software). This tells you the actual runtime, but is dependent on the machine and inputs.
- Count the number of operations needed for inputs of a given size. This is a machine independent analysis, but still depends on the input, and also doesn’t actually tell you how long the code takes to run.
- Derive an algebraic expression relating the number of operations to the size of an input. This tells you how the algorithm scales, but does not tell you how long the code takes to run.

**Algorithm Scaling.** While we ultimately care about the runtime of an
algorithm in seconds, we’ll often say that one algorithm is better than another
simply because of how it scales. By scaling, we mean how the runtime of a piece
of code grows as a function of its input size. For example, inserting at the
beginning of ArrayList on an old computer might take $R(N) = 0.0001N$ seconds,
where $N$ is the size of the list.

For example, if the runtime of two algorithms is $R_1(N) = N^2$, and $R_2(N) = 5000 + N$, we’d say algorithm 2 is better, even though R1 is much faster for small N.

A rough justification for this argument is that performance critical situations are exactly those for which N is “large”, though this is not an obvious fact. In almost all cases we’d prefer the linear algorithm. In some limited real-world situations like matrix multiplication, one might select one algorithm for small N, and another algorithm for large N. We won’t do this in 61B.

**Simplfying Algebraic Runtime.** We utilize four simplifications to make
runtime analysis simpler.

- Pick an arbitrary option to be our
*cost model*, e.g. # of array accesses. - Focus on the worst case, i.e. if the number of operations is between $1$ and $2N + 1$, consider only the $2N + 1$.
- Ignore small inputs, e.g. treat $2N+1$ just like $2N$.
- Ignore constant scaling factor, e.g. treat $2N$ just like $N$.

As an example, if we have an algorithm that performs between $N$ and $2N + 1$ increment operations and between $N$ and $4N^2 + 2N + 6$ compares, our intuitive simplifications will lead us to say that this algorithm has a runtime proportional to $N^2$.

The cost model is simply an operation that we’re picking to represent the entire piece of code. Make sure to pick an appropriate cost model! If we had chosen the number of increment operations as our cost model, we’d mistakenly determine that the runtime was proportional to $N$. This is incorrect since for large N, the comparisons will vastly outnumber the increments.

**Order of Growth.** The result of applying our last 3 simplifications gives us the
order of growth of a function. So for example, suppose $R(N) = 4N^2 + 3N + 6$, we’d
say that the order of growth of $R(N)$ is $N^2$.

The terms “constant”, “linear”, and “quadratic” are often used for algorithms with order of growth $1$, $N$, and $N^2$, respectively. For example, we might say that an algorithm with runtime $4N^2 + 3N + 6$ is quadratic.

**Simplified Analysis.** We can apply our simplifications in advance. Rather than
computing the number of operations for ALL operations, we can pick a specific operation
as our cost model and count only that operation.

Once we’ve chosen a cost model, we can either:

- Compute the exact expression that counts the number of operations.
- Use intuition and inspection to find the order of growth of the number of operations.

This latter approach is generally preferable, but requires a lot of practice. One common intuitive/inspection-based approach is use geometric intuition. For example, if we have nested for loops where i goes from 0 to N, and j goes from i + 1 to N, we observe that the runtime is effectively given by a right triangle of side length N. Since the area of a such a triangle grows quadratically, the order of growth of the runtime is quadratic.

**Big Theta.** To formalize our intuitive simplifications, we introduce
Big-Theta notation. We say that a function $R(N) \in \Theta(f(N))$ if there
exists positive constants $k_1$ and $k_2$ such that $k_1 f_1(N) \leq
R(N) \leq k_2f_2(N)$.

Many authors write $R(N) = \Theta(f(N))$ instead of $R(N) \in \Theta(f(N))$. You may use either notation as you please. I will use them interchangeably.

An alternate non-standard definition is that $R(N) \in \Theta(f(N))$ iff the $\lim_{N\to\infty} \frac{R(N)}{f(N)} = k$, where $k$ is some positive constant. We will not use this calculus based definition in class. I haven’t thought carefully about this alternate definition, so it might be slightly incorrect due to some calculus subtleties.

When using $\Theta$ to capture a function’s asymptotic scaling, we avoid unnecessary terms in our $\Theta$ expression. For example, while $4N^2 + 3N + 6 \in \Theta(4N^2 + 3N)$, we will usually make the simpler claim that is $4N^2 + 3N + 6 \in \Theta(N^2)$.

Big Theta is exactly equivalent to order of growth. That is, if a function $R(N)$ has order of growth $N^2$, then we also have that $R(N) \in \Theta(f(N))$.

## Recommended Problems

For more code analysis problems, See lec18 and lec19 guides instead.

### B level

- Suppose we have a function
`bleepBlorp`

, and its runtime $R(N)$ has order of growth $\Theta(N^2)$. Which of the following can we say?- $R(N) \in \Theta(N^2)$ true, this is what order of growth means!
- $R(N) \in \Theta(N^2)$ for any inputs true, this statement is exactly the same as the one above
- $R(N) \in \Theta(N^2)$ for worst case inputs true, since also true for ANY input
- For large N, if we run bleepBlorp on an input of size $N$, and an input of size $10N$, we will have to wait roughly 100 times as long for the larger input. true, this is the nature of quadratics
- If we run bleepBlorp on an input of size 1000, and an input of size 10000, we will have to wait roughly 100 times as long for the larger input. false, 1000 may not be a large enough N to exhibit quadratic behavior